‘Non-adult’ Semantic Field:
Comparative Analysis for
English, Spanish, and Russian
G. O. Sidorov,
I. A. Bolshakov,
A. F. Gelbukh
Laboratorio de Lenguaje Natural,
Centro de Investigación en Computación, Instituto Politécnico Nacional,
Av. Juan de Dios Bátiz, A.P. 75-476, C.P. 07738, México D.F.,
+52 (5) 729-6000, ext. 56544, 56602, fax 586-2936,
The paper deals with comparative semantic analysis of the concepts related to ‘non-adult’ semantic field in English, Russian, and Spanish. For definitions, we generally use the method of semantic features. On their basis, a feature set and classification common to all selected languages are suggested. We compare the results of the classification and discuss the differences and commonalties.
For example, only Russian has concepts related to the body constitution; English has very few words related to size. The most frequent concepts in Russian are related to a child’s entertaining behavior, in Spanish to bad manners; in English there are many words related to wrong behavior of girls. The most noticeable difference is in the way the three languages segmentate the time scale from baby to adult, and in the scope for the concept of child on this scale. In modern Russian and Spanish there are two gradations for prototypical non-adults while in English only one.
The paper includes parallel trilingual material and describes 181 concepts (in total in the three languages).
Keywords: semantics, semantic features, comparative analysis, semantic field, English – Spanish – Russian.
For comparative analysis of the ‘non-adult’ semantic field, three languages are taken: English, Russian, and Spanish. For English, American variant is considered, and for Spanish, Mexican.
For simplicity, we analyze only individual words rather than word combinations, and only nouns. Only human beings are considered; thus, the words for non-adult animals or plants such as cub or plantlet are ignored.
We use a compound term non-adult because in the chosen languages there is no general word denoting a person that has not yet become adult.
In our investigation, we mainly follow the theoretical ideas from the works of Yu.D. Apresyan , A. Wierzbicka [3, 4], and J. Lakoff . The article is based on our work on a bilingual Russian-English thesaurus  and then on fragments of a trilingual one.
It is well known that every language has its own way of encoding the outer world concepts (this is the linguistic relativity hypothesis by Sapir-Wharf), which bears a deep relation with national culture. Nevertheless, it is quite possible to look for cross-language correspondences, even if not completely exact.
In this article, our main purpose is a comparison of the ways of expression of the notions related to non-adultness, rather than a profound semantic analysis of each word, though some semantic analysis is employed. Detailed description of all the possible meaning of the words being discussed goes beyond the scope of this article, so only the meaning that seems to be primary is considered. Words whose primary meaning is in another semantic field are excluded from our analysis: e.g., imp is a young devil and thus not a human being. Jargon lexicon is also excluded.
Let us consider the nucleus of our semantic field: the notion non-adult. In explanatory dictionaries of all three languages, the main meaning of adult is defined like “mature, having attained full size and strength.” Thus, non-adult is immature, not attained full size and/or strength. Though usually people tend to define adult and related concepts such as child, young, etc., through the concept of age, this intuition is misleading. There are no references to age in the dictionaries we have analyzed: the parameter age just correlates with adultness rather than defines it.
However, usually the speaker knows what age approximately corresponds to each concept in the semantic field, such as child, teenager, etc. Indeed, we usually can say that somebody is adult or not, without knowing his or her exact age, however, it is possible to approximately guess the age of a person.
Thus, people can determine maturity of a person by some external features. These features are evaluations based on physical, social, or moral characteristics of a person. The evaluations by different scales are used at the same time. Such evaluations are not discrete but rather reflect relative position on some scale. Besides such evaluations, there are additional features that may characterize the concepts of the semantic field in a more objective way: typical behavior, like crybaby, social status, like schoolboy, etc.
For our tentative comparative analysis, we use the method of semantic features. We suggest the following basic set of semantic features for all languages being compared:
1. Physically determined evaluations:
· Constitution, proportions;
· Face: state of skin, corrugations, feature forms, etc.;
· National attribution;
· Sexual attribution.
2. Socialability-determined evaluations:
· Possibility to take care about him/herself;
· Possibility to take care about others, including family.
3. Social characteristics:
· Relation to social institutions: e.g., schoolboy, scout;
· Juridical fixed norm: e.g., minor;
· Social status: e.g., wench;
· Relationship to a family or in a family: e.g., firstborn, foundling.
4. Evaluations of behavior, condition, or abilities: e.g., crybaby, whippersnapper.
Using this feature set, we can describe the prototypic adult person as follows. His/her size will not increase; his/her constitution is “typical adult” (this evaluation is based on a generalization of the images of all adult persons); his/her face does not look very young; s/he can take care about him/herself; s/he can take care about other persons (is ready to create a family or has already created it). Negation of all features of a prototypic adult gives a prototypic non-adult. For example, negation of adult constitution is a specific childish constitution (proportions of the body) or angular constitution of a 14–15 years old person.
For our comparative analysis, some grammatical and stylistic characteristics are also useful, e.g., such grammatical features as, gender, plural, substantivation, and stylistic ones as neutral, pejorative, colloquial, indecent, obsolete.
Some pejorative concepts like milksop seem to be applicable to a person of any age, the only condition being that the speaker should consider him/herself older.
Sometimes it is important to emphasize the relationship between the meaning and the inner form of a word. E.g., in Russian grudnichok is a baby fed at the breast (grudj); novorozhdennyj is a newly born child (novyj + rozhdat’ ), etc.
Let us consider some specific concepts that exist in the selected languages. Here we could list only a small fragment of the material. In apostrophes (‘’) approximate translations are given; it is important to realize that these translations are not literal. Russian words are transliterated in Latin alphabet.
Rebjonok, ditja (obsolete)‘child’: prototypical non-adult.
Mladenec ‘baby’: rebjonok whose size is very small and who absolutely can not take care of him/herself; cf. metaphoric usage “he plays chess like a baby.”
Grudnichok ‘baby’: mladenec who is fed at the breast.
Novorozhdenny ‘neonate’: mladenec who was born recently.
Otrok (obsolete)‘child’: rebjonok or podrostok (see below) who can take care of himself to some extent and has certain duties in his family (take care of others to some extent). So, he is not a small child. Sexual attribution: male.
Podrostok ‘teenager’: prototypical non-adult whose size is evaluated to be close to standard for adult and who has a specific angular constitution.
Junosha, paren’ (masc.), devushka (fem.) ‘teenager’: practically adult, but in the speaker’s evaluation based on his/her appearance (mainly, face) is unable to take care about family. Sexual attribution.
Malchik ‘boy’, devochka ‘girl’: rebjonok with sexual attribution.
Junec (pejorative)‘callow youth’: junosha who is mentally a child (negation of his adult mental abilities). Thus, he is adult only at sight. Sexual attribution: male.
Malysh (masc.), malyshka (fem.)‘little child’: rebjonok with emphasis on small size. Sexual attribution.
Malenkij (masc.), Malenkaja (fem.) (substantive)‘little child’: rebjonok with emphasis on small size. Sexual attribution.
Maljutka ‘little child’: rebjonok with emphasis on small size. Expression of certain fondness.
Kroshka, kroha ‘little child’: rebjonok with special evaluation of it as very small. Expression of a certain fondness.
Karapuz ‘little child’: rebjonok of small size; especially stressed specific childish constitution.
Butuz ‘dumpy little child’: rebjonok with emphasis on small size and very solid constitution (but not fat).
Pioner ‘pioneer’, komsomolec ‘komsomol-member’, shkolnik ‘school-boy’, student ‘student’, peteushnik ‘student of PTU’, detsadovec ‘kindergartner’, doshkolnik ‘preschooler’; sexual attribution: male.
Pionerka, komsomolka, shkolnica, studentka, peteushnica, detsadovka, doshkolnica – same as above, but sexual attribution is female.
Juridical fixed norm
Nesovershennoletnij (masc.), nesovershennoletnjaja (fem.) (substantive)‘minor’: a child under the juridical fixed norm (in Russia the norm is 16 years); sexual attribution.
Barchonok (masc.), barchuk (masc.), baryshnja (fem.)(all obsolete): a child of a Russian landlord; sexual attribution.
Kazachok (obsolete): child for service, usually like a batman.
Sirota ‘orphan’: a child that has no parents.
Pervenec ‘firstborn’: a child that was born first in the family.
Posledysh (pejorative)‘last-born’: a child that was born last in the family.
Najdjonysh ‘foundling’:a child that lives in a family as a part of it but was found rather than born in this family.
Podkidysh ‘foundling’: a child that lives in a family as a part of it but was found rather than born in this family, because someone intentionally left him in a place where it would be found (probably) by a member of this family.
Besprisornik (masc.), besprisornica (fem.)‘gamin’: a child that lives without a family and has no home. Sexual attribution.
Kitajchonok, tatarchonok, zhidjonok (pejorative), turchonok, arapchonok (obsolete), negritjonok ‘Chinese, Tatar, Jewish, Turkish, Arab, black child’, respectively; sexual attribution: male.
Plaksa, rjova ‘crybaby’: rebjonok that is used to cry frequently and for insignificant reasons.
Pisklja ‘crybaby’: rebjonok that is used to cry or complain in especially high-pitched voice.
Zaznajka, zadavaka (both pejorative)‘whippersnapper’: rebjonok who is not important in fact but whose behavior is offensively presumptuous, who thinks that he is better than others in some aspect.
Krivljaka (pejorative)‘~ mugger’: rebjonok who tries to express his feelings using his body or face in a bad manner.
Shalun (masc.), shalunja (fem.) ‘frolic child’: rebjonok who makes something to entertain him/herself that can annoy others. Sexual attribution.
Ozornik (masc.), ozornica (fem.)‘prankster’: rebjonok or podrostok who makes something to entertain him/herself that can harm others. Sexual attribution.
Balovnik (masc.), balovnica (fem.)‘prankster’: rebjonok or podrostok who makes something useless to entertain him/herself. Sexual attribution.
Prokaznik (masc.), prokaznica (fem.) ‘prankster’: rebjonok or podrostok who makes something to entertain him/herself that can annoy others. Sexual attribution.
Sorvanec ‘romp’: rebjonok or podrostok who demonstrates behavior (usually, negative) typical for a boy. Sexual attribution: male.
Neposeda ‘fidget’: rebjonok who is always doing something and can not stay without a movement even for a moment.
Poprygunja: rebjonok who is always changing her activities without accomplishing them. Sexual attribution: female.
Postrel, postreljonok: rebjonok who manages to do everything very well and quickly or on time. Sexual attribution: male.
Pochemuchka: rebjonok who asks the questions starting with “why” too frequently.
Vunderkind ‘child prodigy’: rebjonok with brilliant (usually intellectual) capabilities.
Pererostok (pejorative)‘overgrown child’: rebjonok whose physical conditions are too developed as compared with a norm for a collective, status or conditions in which s/he is found.
Akselerat (masc.), akseleratka (fem.)‘rapidly growing adolescent’: podrostok whose physical conditions are more developed than is expected for his/her age.
Child: prototypical non-adult.
Kid (colloquial): a child.
Lad: a boy. Sexual attribution: male.
Youth (masc.), stripling, lass, lassy, maid, maiden, damsel (all fem.): practically adult, but the speaker’s evaluation on the basis of his/her appearance (first of all, face) is that s/he is not able to take care of family. Sexual attribution.
Preteen, preadolescent: a child who is not yet teen or adolescent but close to it.
Adolescent, teen, teenager (the inner form is related to the numerals ending in -teen, from 13 to 19): a child whose size is evaluated as more or less standard for an adult.
Infant, baby: a child whose size is small and who can not take care of him/herself.
Neonate: a baby who was born recently.
Boy (masc.), girl (fem.): a child; sexual attribution; may be baby.
Toddler: a child who starts to walk, but is not doing it very good.
Tyke, tot: a child, with emphasis on small size.
Moppet: a child, with emphasis on small size. Expression of certain fondness.
Scout, schoolboy (masc.), schoolgirl (fem.), kindergartner, preschooler, cadet (masc.), coed (fem.): a child belonging to the respective organizations.
Minor: a child under the juridical fixed norm.
Wench: a country lass (girl).
Orphan: a child who has no parents.
Foundling: a child that lives in a family and is a part of it but was found.
Waif, gamin: a child that lives without a family and has no home.
Firstborn: a child in a family that was born first.
Pickaninny: a black child.
Papoose: a North American Indian child.
Crybaby: a child that used to cry frequently and for insigificant reasons.
Chit, minx: a girl whose behavior is pert. Sexual attribution: female.
Urchin: a boy whose behavior is mischievous. Sexual attribution: male.
Whippersnapper (pejorative): a child who is unimportant but whose behavior is offensively presumptuous.
Tomboy, hoyden: a girl whose behavior is typical for a boy. Sexual attribution: female.
Romp: a child who used to play lively or boisterous games.
Brat: a child whose behavior is annoying and impolite.
Hobbledehoy: a youth who is awkward, ungainly.
Nymph: a beautiful girl with some features of sexuality. Sexual attribution: female.
Youngster: a child with the accent on his/her physical youth.
We will not specially mention sexucal attribution for Spanish words that follow the regular -o/-a alternation rule, e.g., niño (masc.) versus niña (fem).
Niño ‘child’: prototypical non-adult.
Infante, bebé, nene, inocente ‘baby’: niño who absolutely needs an adult to take care of.
Lactante, criatura, rorro ‘newly-born infant’: newly born child who is fed at the breast.
Crío, chamaquillo, chavalillo, muchachito ‘child, preteen’: niño who can take care of himself in restricted sense and is of a small size.
Adolescente, muchacho, chamaco, jovencito ‘teenager’: niño whose size is evaluated as more or less standard for an adult.
Preadolescente ‘initial teenager’: adolescente, with emphasis on that s/he shows only some initial adolescence characteristics.
Joven, chico, chavo ‘rather matured teenager’: practically adult, but the speaker’s evaluation is that s/he could not take care of family.
Niño ‘boy’, niña ‘girl’: child, with sexual attribution.
Chiquitín, pequeñito ‘baby’: bebé who starts moving on his knees, but not walking.
Size and constitution
Chiquito, pequeño, pequeñuelo, chamaquito ‘little child’: niño, with emphasis on small size.
Comino, varoncito, hombrecito (all masc.), mujercita (fem.)‘little child’: niño, with emphasis on small size, but emphasizing his abilities or characteristics similar to those of older children.
Chicuelo, escuincle ‘teenager’: chamaco or adolescente, with emphasis on small size, sometimes pejorative.
Boy-scout (masc.), niña guía (fem.)‘scout’.
Acólito ‘church helper’: a boy that helps to catholic priests in the mass.
Cadete ‘cadet’: a boy or male teenager taking military instruction.
Colegial (masc.)‘schoolboy’, colegiala (fem.)‘schoolgirl’ , estudiante ‘student’, escolar ‘scoolboy or schoolgirl’.
Párvulo, preescolar, niño de kinder ‘kindergartner’.
Menor ‘minor’: a child under the juridical fixed form; in Mexico the norm is 18 years.
Señorito (masc.), amita (fem.) (obsolete): a child of rich land owners. Sexual attribution.
Niño bien (phraseological unit) ‘rich teenager’: teenager with high economic position and a special behavior.
Primogénito ‘firstborn’: a firstborn child.
Benjamín ‘last-born’: a last-born child.
Expósito ‘abandoned child’: a baby that was abandoned.
Huérfano ‘orphan’: a child who has no parents.
Adoptado ‘foundling’: a child that was legally adopted as a part of family.
Recogido ‘foundling’: a child that lives in a family as a part of it but s/he was found rather than born in the family.
Chillón, llorón ‘crybaby’: niño that used to cry frequently.
Malcriado, mimado, consentido, mocoso ‘spoiled child’: niño who is ill mannered because of the lack of good parental education.
Marimacha: niña (girl) that has a behavior like a boy. Sexual attribution: female.
Travieso ‘mischievous child’: niño causing annoyance, harm, or trouble.
All three languages have special words for a baby. A baby is evidently a child. Most of the other general concepts that are defined using the concept ‘child’ have presupposition that he/she is not a baby (we did not repeat this in our definitions), except for boy and girl. Thus, a baby has no specific properties but sex.
All three languages have special words for non-adult persons with national attribution, but only for those nations that have clear distinctive features from the speakers of this language, and are important in the given culture, e.g., for neighboring nations: black people and Indians in American English; Turks, Tatars, Chinese in Russian; Yucatan in Mexican Spanish (these Mayan-speaking people are opposed to Aztecs living in Central Mexico).
It might seem strange that the concept of negr ‘black person’ is present in Russian. Probably the explanation is in their sharp visible distinction from the average Russian speaker. Historically, kitaec ‘Chinese person’ was (and sometimes is) used in Russian to denote the Asian-type people.
The words connected with relationships in the family and to juridical fixed norm are nearly identical in the three languages. The words connected with relationships to social institutions obviously depend on the institutions existing in the corresponding countries. Therefore, the words connected with social characteristics are practically the same, being adjusted for the differences in social institutions and culture.
Only Russian seems to have concepts related to the body constitution (butuz, karapuz, podrostok). Spanish has more concepts related to size: 10, while Russian has 7, and English 3.
Of the words related to evaluation of behavior, in Russian, the most frequent concepts are connected with child’s entertaining behavior (ozornik, etc.: 5 of 18), English with wrong behavior of girls (chit, minx, tomboy, hoyden:4 of 12), and Spanish with bad manners (malcriado, mimado, consentido, mocoso:4 of 8). Probably this reflects the most socially marked behavior.
The three languages differently segmentate the rubric of general concepts (except for babies).
First, they differ in a scope for a prototypic non-adult. In Russian, teenager, like podrostok, junosha, are not anymore children. In Spanish, matured teenagers, like joven, are not children, but teenagers, like muchacho, still are so. In English, all non-adult persons can be referred to as children.
Second, the time scale is different. Some time ago Russian had four stages: rebjonok – otrok – podrostok – junosha, but now otrok has become obsolete and its place on the scale was occupied by rebjonok.
In English, there is one binary opposition: teenager – preteen (or adolescent – preadolescent, these pairs seem to be equivalent), with very few words in each part. It has a special group of words denoting practically adult persons, like youth, maid, etc.; the members of this group also are adolescents.
In Spanish, there is a three-level gradation: muchachito – muchacho – joven, as in modern Russian. However, the place of obsolete Russian otrok that was in modern Russian occupied by a younger rebjonok, in Spanish is occupied by older muchacho. Also, Russian rebjonok intersects on the scale with Spanish muchacho. Besides, in Spanish, unlike Russian, for each position on the scale there are several words.
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2. Lakoff, G. Women, fire and dangerous things. What categories reveal about the mind. Chicago University Press, Chicago, 1987.
3. Wierzbicka, A. Semantics, culture, and cognition: Universal human concepts in culture-specific configurations. Oxford University Press, New York, 1992.
4. Wierzbicka, A. Cross-cultural pragmatics: The semantics of human interaction. Mouton de Groyter, Berlin, 1991.
5. Bolshakov, I., P. Cassidy, A.Gelbukh. Russian Roget: Parallel Russian and English Hierarchical Thesauri with Semantic Links, Based on an Enriched Roget's Thesaurus (In Russian). Proc. of the Annual International Conf. on Applied Linguistics Dialogue-95, pp. 57 - 60, Khazan, May 1995, Moscow, Russia.
 In this article, we leave apart the collective nouns because they usually do not have special semantic features.
 This word also has other meanings.
 It is important for a child, because he can not take care of himself. When he grows up, formally he still is an orphan, but it is not so important any longer.
 It is interesting that plural is used only for “kitajchonok” and “negritjonok”. Maybe it is connected with the fact that they are used for denoting the corresponding races (see the Discussion section).
 The concepts from plaksa to poprygunja may also denote adult persons, though such behavior is typical mainly for children.